Starting Listening Classical Music

Posted: ตุลาคม 13, 2013 in Uncategorized

Hello, everyone! I’m really sorry for leaving my blog for long time but I was being very busy on music teacher audition and studying Japanese language. From now on, I’m going to update my blog frequently.

 Let’s talk about starting listening Classical music. I hope that this article would help you.

1. Start with a very frequently heard songs like Fur Elise, or a movement from a symphony like Beethoven’s No.5

2. Start with Baroque to Romantic songs because these songs are not hard to listen.

3. Famous conductors and orchestras should be later choices because it doesn’t mean that they are good choices. Common bands and orchestra wouldn’t be too heavy for beginners.

4. If you have enough time, you can study Classical music and study about musicians, kind of orchestral song, instruments, etc.

Hello! I’m going to talk about trivia in Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No.3 in E-flat major, Op. 55 “Eroica”

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The title page of Eroica Symphony. Please notice that there is an erase dedication to Napoleon.
1. This symphony is supposed to be the milestone of the end of the Classic Period and the beginning of the Romantic Period.

2. Formerly, Beethoven wrote this song for dedication for Napoleon Bonaparte, so he titled the work “Bonaparte” because he wrote during French Revolution. However, after Napoleon’s enthronement to Emperor of the French, Beethoven frustrated that his hero turned to tyrant, therefore he scratched the word “Bonaparte” with his knife and tore the title page out. Later, he named the symphony “Eroica”, which means heroic.
Luckily, Beethoven just tore the title page. If he frustrated enough to destroy his work, we couldn’t listen to his elegant symphony.
3. Beethoven was asked about his favorite symphony in his eight symphonies (no the ninth symphony yet) by his friend. He said “Eroica”.

 

Hello! I have a classical music CD to introduce. That is Mass in B minor by Bach performed by The English Baroque Soloists and The Monteverdi Choir, conducted by Sir John Eliot Gardiner. Recorded on February, 1985, Archiv Produktion.

 

Mass

 

The Mass, or Missa, is a kind of a form of sacred choral musical composition, that sets invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy. There are two main kinds of Masses: Mass and Requiem, which the second one is the Mass for funeral.

 

Mass in B minor

 

 

Autograph score of Benedcitus.

 


Mass in B minor, BWV 232 by Johann Sebastian Bach finished at 1749. Originally scored for two soprano parts, two altos and each part of tenor and bass. (Often abbreviated as SSAATB) Instruments in orchestra are three trumpets, timpani, two corno da caccia, two flauti travesi, two oboes, two oboe d’amore, two bassoons, two violins, viola and bass continuo.

 

This Mass is divided to four parts:

 

I. Kyrie and Gloria (Written in Bach’s manuscript as “Missa”)

 

1. Kyrie eleison(I) (In Greek, means “Lord, have mercy on us.)

 

2. Christe eleison (In Greek, again. “Christ, have mercy on us.) In Duet for Soprano and Mezzo-Soprano.

 

3. Kyrie eleison(II)

 

4. Gloria in excelsis (In Latin, Glory to the God in the highest)

 

5. Et in terra pax (And on earth peace)

 

6. Laudamus te (We praise Thee.) Aria (Solo vocal part) for Soprano.

 

7. Gratias agimus tibi (We give thanks to Thee)

 

8. Domine Deus (Lord God)

 

9. Qui tollis peccata mundi (Thou who takes away the sins of the world.)

 

10. Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris (Thou who sit at the right hand of the Father)

 

11. Quoniam tu solus sanctus (For Thou alone art the Holy One.)

 

12. Cum Sancto Spiritu (With the Holy Spirit)

 


II. Credo (Symbolum Nicenum)

 

1. Credo in unum Deum (I believe in the only God.)

 

2. Patrem omni potentem (The Father almighty)

 

3. Et in unum Dominum (And in the only Lord Jesus Christ)

 

4. Et incarnatus est (The incarnation)

 

5. Crucifixus (Crucifition)

 

6. Et resurrexit (The Resurrection)

 

7. Et in Spiritum Sanctus (And in the Holy Spirit)

 

8. Confiteor (I acknowledge.)

 

9. Et expecto (And I look for.)

 


III. Sanctus

 

1. Sanctus (Holy)

 


IV. Osanna, Benedictus, Agnus Dei et Dona nobis pacem

 

1. Osanna in excelsis (Hosanna in the highest)

 

2. Benedictus (Bless to him)

 

3. Osanna (Repeat)

 

4. Agnus Dei (Lamb of God)

 

5. Dona nobis pacem (Grant peace to us.)

 

Sir John Eliot Gardiner

 

Born 20 April 1943 in Dorset. Graduated from King’s College, Cambridge. He founded the period instruments orchestra Monteverdi Orchestra.) (Later changed the name to the English Baroque Soloists.) He made his debut with a performance, Mozart’s Magic Flute at the English National Opera.

 

Gardiner later had many conducting works in Dallas Symphony Orchestra, CBC Vancouver Orchestra. He became the music director of Opera National de Lyon.

 

He founded the Monteverdi Choir, the English Baroque Soloists and the Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique. He is famous at interpretations of Baroque music on period instruments has recorded many albums, including this album.

 

P.S. I’m sorry that I can’t post the photo of the cover of this CD due to its copyright.

 

Musician Biography No.2 – Pachelbel

Posted: กรกฎาคม 15, 2013 in Biography
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Have ever heard Canon in D before? That’s a very famous sing composed by Johann Pachelbel. He brought south German music to the peak and wrote many songs like fugue, prelude, choral songs, etc.

https://i2.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/16/Pachelbel-canon-colors.png

The note of Canon in D major.

Life

Childhood and Studying

Johann Pachelbel was born in 1653 in Nuremberg. The definite his birthday is unknown, only thing we can know is baptized day, 1 September.

In childhood, Pachelbel studied music from Heinrich Schwemmer, who would become the cantor of St. Sebaldus Church. He received primary education in St. Lorenz Hauptschule and the Auditorio Aegediano in Nuremberg. Then on 1669 he became a student of University of Altdorf.

Career

In 1673, Pachelbel became organist in Saint Stephen Cathedral in Vienna. At that time, Vienna was the center of Habsburg Empire and also the center of importance of western music. He moved to Eisenach in 1677, where he worked as a court organist in Kapellmeister Daniel Berlin in the employ of Johann Georg I Duke of Saxe-Eisenach , in this time he met Bach family and became a close friend with Johann Ambrosius Bach (Johann Sebastian Bach‘s father).

In 1678, Pachelbel was employed as an organist and a music teacher in Predigerkirche in Erfurt.

Last years

He move to Wurttemberg and became an court musician and organist in 1690. Unfortunately, in two years later, he had to escaped from the French attacks of the War of the Grand Alliance. His got his next job in Gotha in 1692.

Pachelbel lived the rest of his life in Nuremberg.

Family

Pachelbel married Barbara Gabler, daughter of the Stadt-Major of Erfurt, on 25 October 1681. They had only son. Unfortunately, his first wife and his son died in 1683 during a plague.

He married Judith Drommer, daughter of a coppersmith, on 24 August 1684. They had five sons and two daughters. Two of the sons became organ composers; the latter move to American colonies. Another son became an instrument maker and traveled to London and Jamaica. One of daughters was later known as painter and engraver.

Final years

Pachelbel died at the age of 52 in 3 March 1706. Pachelbel was the last important south German composer.

Influence

Pachelbel didn’t make much influence to most of the famous Baroque composers and later such as Handel, Scarlatti, etc. Except for J.S. Bach indirectly, who was tutored from his brother, who studied from Pachelbel.

Works

In many Pachelbel’s compositions, Canon in D major is the most known. It is scored for three violins and basso continuo. This song is applied for many modern musics. He also wrote many keyboard songs too. He wrote for manuals only, pedals aren’t needed.

Opus Number and Alternative Catalogue Numbers

Posted: กรกฎาคม 3, 2013 in Song, Uncategorized

Hello! I’m sorry for my long absent. Now let’s talk about Opus number.

Meanings
This word in latin (in single) means work. Abbreviated as Op. for single and Opp. for plural.

Title page of Beethoven’s Piano Concerto No.3, Op. 37. Opus number is under Beethoven’s name.

 

Using

This number is assigned by individual composers for each or a set of compositions to identify their works. Also assigned to whole work of opera.

History
Before 19th century, opus numbers were not assigned and published chronologically, especially in Baroque and Classic Period. Since about 1800, many composers, especially Beethoven, assigned their work with opus number, but selectively. So, there are many works are put opus number after the death of composer, assigned as Op. posth. After 1900 most of composers put opus number on their works.

Alternative catalogue number
Opus number, in fact, is not a good indicator of chronological order of works. Therefore, many music scholars did a research and made a catalogue of some composer’s works.

1. K or KV  for Köchel-Verzeichnis (in German). Use for Mozart’s compositions.Named from Ludwig von Köchel, who catalogued Mozart’s works.

2. BWV (Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis). Use for Bach’s works. Developed by Wolfgang Schmieder. Thematically grouped, not chronically.

3. D. for Franz Schubert’s works. Developed by Otto Erich Deutsch.

4. RV (Ryom-Verzeichnis) for Antonio Vivaldi’s catalogue. Created by Peter Ryom

5. Hob. for Hoboken-Verzeichnis for Joseph Haydn’s works. Created by Anthony van Hoboken. Grouped by form of work, except for some Haydn’s string quartets, which are assigned by opus number.

6. WoO (Werke ohne Opuszhal or Work without opus number in English) used for Beethoven’s works which opus numbers not assigned or are fragmented.

7. WAB (Werkeverzeichnis Antonin Bruckner) Assigned for Antonin Bruckner’s works, not included unfinished or unclassified works, which are assigned WAB deest. Compiled by Renata Grasberger.

8. S. for Franz Liszt’s works. Developed by Humphery Searle.

9. L. for Claude Debussy’s compositions. Created by François Lesure.

Chamber Music

Posted: มิถุนายน 14, 2013 in Uncategorized
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Hello! Welcome to nat@note’s Music Blog. This article is about Chamber music.

This kind of music is scored for small group of instruments from two to ten instruments, which traditionally could fit a palace chamber. Mostly three to five movements.

Sometimes sonata is included to chamber music because it have one or two instruments but sometimes not because sonata provides only performance of solo instrument.

This kind of music is born since late Baroque, supposed that it originated from sonata in that period. Later, it was developed and went to the peak in Classical. (See Sonata in my blog)

https://i0.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/59/KneiselQuartet.jpg/512px-KneiselQuartet.jpg
String Quartet is an example of chamber music ensemble.

Ensembles

1. Duo or Duet – for two instruments. Example: Piano Duet.

2. Trio – for three instruments. Example: Piano Trio, consists of piano, violin and cello.

3. Quartet – for four. Example: String Quartet, the well-known ensemble. Consists of two violins, viola and cello.

4. Quintet – for five. Example: Piano Quintet. (See Recommended songs)

5. Sextet – for six.

6. Septet – for seven.

7. Octet – for eight.

8. Nonet – for nine.

9. Decet – for ten.

Recommended songs

Piano Quinter in A major, D. 667 by Schubert – known as Trout Quintet. This song is scored for violin, viola, cello and double bass. It got this name because there is a set of theme and variations in the fourth movement on Schubert’s earlier Lied* “Die Forelle” (The Trout). Five movements in this song.

* A kind of vocal song, arranged for single singer and piano.

Sonata

Posted: มิถุนายน 10, 2013 in Song
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Hello! Now this article is about a kind of classical song called sonata.

Sonata has two usages: 1. The most common genre are piano solo or solo instrument, such as violin or cello, accompanied with piano. This meaning began since Classical period. 2. Baroque sonata – I’ll tell about this kind of this sonata in its history.

Piano is very impressive instrument: it can be played alone so that it doesn’t need other instruments to accompany. This explains why violin and others instrument should be accompanied with piano. Because their sound is not impressing so much as piano.

Forms

1. First movement – Generally sonata form.

2. Second movement – Slow movement.

3. Third movement – Dance rhythm.

4. Final movement – Sonata or Rondo form.

Three-movement sonatas have not the third movement. However, most sonatas have three movements, like all concertos. I think because music contents of sonatas are not much as symphonies.

History

This word originated from Latin and Italian word sonare, means to sound or to played, to distinguished from vocal song, cantata (means to sing).

To be specific: Symphony is “sonata” for orchestra and concerto is “sonata” for solo instrument and orchestra.

In the early Baroque, sonata had very wide meaning: it was also applied for a variety of works for solo instrument such as keyboards, violin ,etc. and for group of instruments. No definite number of movements or music form.

Sonatas in Baroque were also divided to two kind: 1. Church Sonata – focusing on contrapunctal texture, had four movements: Slow-fast-slow-fast. 2. Chamber Sonata – had minuet song.

Until the middle of Baroque, the meaning of sonata we know happened: there was a definite number of instruments and music movements. Arcangelo Corelli, an Italian musician and composer, developed sonata for three instrument called trio sonata, which was very popular in that time. Also, duo sonata, sonata for two instruments, was also popular too.

An example of Baroque sonata is Violin sonata in G minor by Giuseppe Tartini, known as Devil’s Trill Sonata.

Composers who wrote many sonatas are Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. In Romantic period, sonata was still popular until 20th century.

Recommended sonatas

Piano Sonata No. 8 in C minor, Op. 13 “Pathetique” by Beethoven The second movement is very famous that it is applied in modern music.

Piano Sonata No.14 in C-sharp minor, Op. 27 No. 2 by Beethoven The very famous Beethoven’s sonata, especially the first movement. I’ll detail this song later.

Piano Sonata No. 11 in A major, K.331(300i in the second Kochel’s catalogue) by Mozart The last movement, popularly known as “Turkish Rondo“, is often listened and is the one of Mozart’s best known piano piece.